Hop Profiles

Posted as a 7-part series to HBD #2391 through #2398. Posted by John Goldwaite (ir358@cleveland.Freenet.Edu).

I was picking up supplies and found this handy dandy hop profile sheet put together by the folks at L.D. Carlson. I'm guessing that many of you may not have access to it so I'll post a few at a time over the next week or so.

One of the earliest high alpha hops in the world. Raised in 1919
in England from a wild Manitoban female crossed with an English
male hop.

Alpha Acid: 6.5-9%    Beta Acid: 3.2-4.7%
Aroma: Intense,black currant aroma, spicy and pungent.
Storage: 40-50%
Used for: Mainly bittering. Stouts and Dark ales.
Substitutions: Northern Brewer and Galena.


Derived from a cross between fuggles and the Russian hop 

Alpha Acid: 4.5-7%   Beta Acid: 4.5-7%
Aroma: Pleasant, flowery and spicy, citrus-like.
Storage: 48-52%
Used For: Good for flavor and aroma, but an acceptable bittering
hop. Ales and lagers.
Substitutions: Centennial

Newer variety still under experimentation. Cross between 
Brewer's Gold and a selected USDA male.

Alpha Acid: 9.5-11.5%    Beta Acid: 3.5-4.5%
Aroma: Medium with floral and citrus tones.
Storage: 60-65%
Used For: Aromatic but acceptable for bittering. Medium to Dark
American Ales.
Subs: Cascade

Challenger-Imported (UK)-All purpose
One of the few recognized all-purpose hops combining moderate
amounts of alpha acid with a good kettle aroma.

Alpha Acid: 7-10%    Beta Acid: 4-4.5%
Aroma: Mild to Moderate, quite spicy.
Storage: 70-85%
Used For: Popular bittering hop used primarily in the UK. 
British ales and lagers
Subs: Undetermined

Cross between Petham Golding and USDA select male. Released in 
1985 and becoming popular. 

Alpha Acid: 12-14%    Beta Acid: 3-4%
Aroma: Mild to medium-heavy, spicy, distinct piney aroma.
Storage: 60-70%
Used For: Strong bittering ability. All American lagers and ales.
Substitutions: Galena,Cluster,Nugget

Cluster--Domestic--All Purpose
Excellent general purpose hop with medium and well-balanced 
bittering potential and no undesirable aroma properties. Good 
for Dark beers.

Alpha Acid: 5.5-8.5%    Beta Acid: 4.5-5.5%
Aroma: floral
Storage: 80-85%
Used For: Bittering with good flavor. Light and dark American
Subs: Galena,Chinook.

Columbus--Domestic--All Purpose
Relatively new variety becoming increasingly accepted.

Alpha Acid: 14-16%    Beta: 4.5-5.5%
Aroma: pleasant
Storage: under evaluation
Used For: Bittering mainly, good flavor.
Subs: Undetermined

Known as a triploid, three hops contributing characteristics:
Cascade, Brewer's Gold and Early Green.

Alpha: 2-4.5%    Beta: 4.5-6.5%
Aroma: Mild and pleasant
Storage: 50%
Used For: Aroma
Subs: Liberty,Mt. Hood,German Hallertau

Eroica--Domestic--All Purpose
Bred by open pollination of Brewer's Gold. Poor Storageability.
Better aroma than many high alpha acid hops. Suitable for general

Alpha Acid: 11-13%    Beta Acid: 4-5.5%
Aroma: Quite strong but not unpleasant.
Storage: 55-65%
Used For: bittering and good aroma for high alpha hops (use 
sparingly). Pale ales, dark ales and Stouts
Substitutions: Chinook,Cluster,Galena,Nugget.

Traditional aroma hop, appeared in 1875 England. Also known over-
seas as Styrian Golding.

Alpha Acid: 4-5.5%    Beta Acid: 1.5-2%
Aroma: Mild and pleasant, spicy, soft, woody. (Harrelson?)
Storage: 60-65%
Used For: Finishing, Dry hopping. English ales, especially Pale
ales, Porters, Stouts. 
Substitutions: Willamette, East Kent Goldings, Styrian Goldings.

Bred from Brewer's Gold by open pollination. Excellent high 
alpha acid hop with balanced bittering profiles paired with 
acceptable hop aroma. 

Alpha Acid: 12-14%    Beta Acid: 7-9%
Aroma: Medium but pleasant hoppiness. 
Storage: 75-80%
Used For: Very bitter, but blends well with finishing hops.
American ales and lagers. Suitable for all beer styles.
Subs: Nugget, Cluster, Chinook. 

This is the US version of the German Hallertau (below)

Alpha: 4-6%    Beta: 3.5-4.5%
Aroma: mild, pleasant and slightly flowery.
Storage: 45%
Used For: Good all around bittering and finishing. Stock ales,
Altbiers, Belgian ales, and Continental style lagers.
Subs: Mt. Hood, Liberty, Crystal.

Traditionally a superior German aroma hop. Excellent flavor.

Alpha: 3.5-5.5%    Beta: 3-4%
Aroma: Mild to semi-strong, the most popular aroma variety.
Storage: 50-60%
Used For: Versatile bittering and finishing. Wheats, Altbiers,
Pilseners, Belgian ales, American and German lagers.
Subs: Mt. Hood, Liberty, Crystal.

Kent Goldings--Imported-(U.K.)--Finishing
Traditional old English hop. Referred to as East Kent Goldings if
grown in East Kent, Kent Goldings if grown in Mid-Kent, and 
Goldings if grown elsewhere.

Alpha Acid: 4-5.5%    Beta Acid: 2-3.5%
Aroma: Gentle, Fragrant and pleasant
Storage: 65-80%
Used For: Classic English ales, kettle hopping, dry hopping, spicy
flavor. Pale ales, Bitters, Porters, Stouts.
Substitutions: Goldings (British Columbia), Fuggle, Willamette.

Released in 1991, aroma variety with close similarities to the
imported German aroma varieties.

Alpha Acid: 3-5%    Beta Acid: 3-4%
Aroma: Mild and pleasant, quite fine.
Storage: 35-55%
Used For: Finishing. American and German ales and lagers.
Subs: German Hallertau, Mt. Hood, Crystal.

Mount Hood--Domestic--Finishing
Aroma variety with similarities to the German Hallertau and 
Hersbrucker varieties, released in the U.S. in 1989.

Alpha Acid: 5-8%    Beta Acid: 5-7.5%
Aroma: Mild, pleasant, clean, light, and delicate.
Storage: 50-60%
Used For: Aroma and flavor. American and German ales and lagers.
Subs: German Hallertau, Liberty, Crystal.

Northern Brewer--Domestic--All Purpose
A true dual-purpose hop containing moderate amounts of alpha 
acids combined with an acceptable aroma profile.

Alpha Acid: 8-10%    Beta Acid: 3-5%
Aroma: Medium-strong, some wild American tones, (what the hell
does that mean!) woody with evergreen and mint overtones. 
Storage: 70-80%
Used For: Good for bittering with strong flavors and very 
fragrant. Steam beers, Dark English ales, and German lagers.
Subs: Galena, Perle.

Nugget--Domestic--All Purpose
Selected from a cross between Brewer's Gold and a high alpha male.

Alpha Acid: 12-14%    Beta Acid: 4-6%
Aroma: Quite heavy and herbal, spicy.
Storage: 70-80%
Used For: Extremely bitter. Medium to Dark ales and lagers.
Subs: Chinook, Galena, Cluster

Perle--Domestic--All Purpose
Derived from English Notheren Brewer, new to the U.S. industry.

Alpha Acid: 7-9.5%    Beta Acid: 4-5%
Aroma: Pleasant, slightly spicy
Storage: 80-85%
Used For: Minty bittering and good "green hop" aromas. All non-
pilsener lagers, wheats
Subs: Northern Brewer, Cluster, Galena

Polnischer Lublin--Imported (Poland)--Finishing
Another source of the classical noble-aroma type hop with long
and strong traditions. Widely believed to be a clone of Saaz.

Alpha Acid: 3-4.5%    Beta Acid: 2.3-3.8%
Aroma: Mild and typical of noble aroma types.
Storage: 40-55%
Used For: Finishing
Subs: Czech Saaz, Tettnang

Pride of Ringwood--Imported (Australia)--All Purpose
At the time of release in 1965 it was the highest alpha hop
in the world. closely associated with such famous beers as
Foster's Lager. 

Alpha Acid: 7-10%    Beta Acid: 5.3-6.5%
Aroma: Quite pronounced but not unpleasant, citrus-like.
Storage: 45-55%
Used For: Finishing, very flavorful. Pilseners, Continental
Used For: Disregard above. Predominantly bittering but with
interesting aromatic qualities. British ales, Australian-
style ales and lagers.
Subs: Centennial, Galena, Cluster

U.S. equivalent of the Czech variety, but lacks some of the fine-
ness of aroma.

Alpha Acid: 3-4.5%    Beta Acid: 3-4.5%
Aroma: Very mild and pleasant, spicy and fragrant
Storage: 45-55%
Used For: Finishing, very flavorful. Pilseners,Continental lagers
and Wheats. 
Subs: Czech Saaz

Saaz--Imported (Czechoslovakia)--Finishing
Classical noble aroma hop with long and strong traditions. 
Associated with the renowned Pilsener lager. 

Alpha Acid: 3-4.5%    Beta Acid: 3-4.5%
Aroma: Very mild with pleasant hoppy notes. 
Storage: 45-55%
Used For: Finishing. Bohemian-style beers, Continental lagers,
Wheats, Pilsener lagers.
Subs: Tettnang (Only in a pinch), U.S. Saaz

Styrian Goldings--Imported (Slovenia)--Finishing
A world renowned aroma hop with widespread usage in both ale
and lager brewing. An ecotype of Fuggle grown in Slovenia.

Alpha Acid: 4.5-6%    Beta Acid: 2-3%
Aroma: Delicate, slightly spicy, soft and floral.
Storage: 65-80%
Used For: Bittering, finishing, dry hopping. english style
ales, Vienna/Oktoberfest lagers, Belgian ales, Pilseners.
Subs: Fuggle, Willamette.

Target--Imported (U.K.)--All Purpose
Widely used for high alpha acid content comined with an acceptable

Alpha Acid: 9.5-12.5%    Beta Acid: 5-5.5%
Aroma: Pleasant English hop aroma, quite intense.
Storage: 45-55%
Used For: Robust bittering. British ales and lagers.
Subs: None really quite like it, maybe East Kent Goldings.

Recently established in the U.S., traditional German variety, true
noble aroma variety.

Alpha Acid: 4-5%    Beta Acid: 3-4%
Aroma:  Fine, very spicy, mild, floral, very aromatic.
Storage: 55-60%
Used For: Finishing. Wheats and lagers.
Subs: Saaz

A quality aroma hop with a smooth soft flavor. Can be used for
ales and lagers. 

Alpha Acid: 4-6%    Beta Acid: 3-4%
Aroma: mild and pleasant, slightly spicy, aromatic.
Storage: 60-65%
Used For: Finishing, dry hopping. American and British ales.
Subs: Fuggle, Styrian Goldings, Kent Goldings. 


Garetz, Mark. Using Hops: The Complete Guide to Hops for the Craft Brewer. Danville,CA: Hop Tech, 1994.

HopUnion U.S.A. Inc. Hop Variety Characteristics. Yakima,WA: HopUnion, U.S.A., Inc. 1995.

Miller, David. Homebrewing Guide. Pownal,VT: Storey Publishing, 1995.

Snyder, Stephen. The Brewmaster's Recipe Manual. Guttenburg,NJ: The Beer Garden Press, 1994.